ISR Economic growth and performance studies
Theories of the Labour Market and Employment:
This book reviews theory, research, and methods of analyzing the labour market and employment.
Free and flexible labour markets can automatically end both labour surpluses (unemployment) and labour shortages (over-employment).However, in practice various things may impede wage flexibility, freedom of contract, and labour mobility – and thus the balancing of supply and demand. Protectionist minimum wage tariff barriers and other obstacles to labour market entry and competition are one major general cause of unemployment. Technological and other business-economic development is a second major general cause while contraction or recession in economies is a third.
The book argues that broadly dividing unemployment into obstructional, developmental, and contractional types is more accurate and useful than distinguishing between frictional, structural, and cyclical forms (the conventional economic classification). It also argues that is inadequate to analyze labour markets or explain employment and unemployment in purely economic terms. Even in the most developed, differentiated and autonomous market capitalist economies, external socio-cultural, personality, and physical-organic environmental factors still impinge on labour markets and employment.
A general theme of the book is the importance of bringing in empirical data from the real world to support or disprove theories.
1. Theories of the Labour Market and Employment: An Overview
Introduction and overview of the main contents*References & further reading*
2. The Labour Market and Employment in Modern Society
Introduction* The labour market in modern society* The definition of employment and unemployment* The distinctive nature of market capitalist employment* The modern corporation and management* From patriarchal and political to specialist professional business management* Capital, management, and labour: historical and comparative perspectives* The sociological analysis of the labour market and employment* References & further reading*
3. The Nature and Causes of Unemployment
Introduction and overview* Labour supply and demand* The measurement of employment and unemployment*External influences on the economy and employment*The achievement and maintenance of high employment* New technology and jobs* Changing skill and knowledge requirements* The effective integration of labour markets* The removal of inter-community discrimination and protection* Types of unemployment* Obstructional unemployment* Developmental unemployment* Contractional unemployment* References & further reading*
4. The Political and Legal Environment
Introduction and overview* Fiscal policy and employment* Monetary economic policy and employment* Wage control, inflation, and employment* Minimum wage tariff barriers to labour market entry and employment* Other official obstacles to employment* Taxation and employment* Welfare and employment* The basic legal protection of employment rights and freedoms* References & further reading*
5. Trade Unions and Wage Determination
The regulation of labour supply and demand* Factors affecting employee earnings*Payment by results*Trade unions, government, and wage determination* Historical and comparative perspectives* Trade unions and working hours* References & further reading*
6. Educational, Family, and Leisure Influences
Introduction* The economics of education* The family and women’s employment* Age and employment (1): youth* Age and employment (2): seniority* Leisure and employment* References & further reading*
7. Employment Attitudes, Motives, and Behaviour
Theories of work motivation* Inter-occupational and inter-industry variations* Cultural and personality influences* Differences between America and Europe* The effects of joblessness* References & further reading*